In 2017, a new classification system for Periodontal diseases was released. Periodontal disease is a group inflammatory disorder of the tissues surroundings of the teeth called “Gum diseases”.  In certain cases antibiotics or dental surgery may be recommended. If this periodontal condition is not identified and people remain unaware of the progressive nature of the disease, then years later, they may be surprised that some teeth will gradually become loose and may need to be extracted, sometimes due to a severe infection or even pain. The cornerstone of successful periodontal treatment starts with establishing excellent oral hygiene. , Local drug deliveries in periodontology has gained acceptance and popularity compared to systemic drugs due to decreased risk in development of resistant flora and other side effects. Its occurrence decreases with a higher standard of living. According to the 1999 classification, the severity of chronic periodontitis is graded as follows:. However, the risk increases exponentially as glycaemic control worsens. Genetic factors that can develop the diseases include; defects of phagocytosis, hyperproduction of interleukins, prostaglandins, and cytokines. Periodontitis (per-e-o-don-TIE-tis) is a serious gum infection that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone that supports your teeth. , Treatment involves good oral hygiene and regular professional teeth cleaning. In addition to initial RSI, it may also be necessary to adjust the occlusion (bite) to prevent excessive force on teeth that have reduced bone support. The number and types of treatment will vary, depending on the extent of the gum disease. Periodontal literature Most of the attempts to attach a classification for the prognosis of individual teeth come from the periodontal literature. If left untreated, periodontal disease can result in … In the primary stage, the gum becomes swollen, red, and may bleed. ... 33, proposed an evidence-based periodontal prognosis model. Its prevalence in dogs increases with age, but decreases with increasing body weight; i.e., toy and miniature breeds are more severely affected. Removal of microbial plaque and calculus is necessary to establish periodontal health. As a review, the periodontal classifications were revised in 1999 and classified as chronic, aggressive (localized and generalized), necrotizing, and a manifestation of systemic disease. PLAY. The researchers suggest that smoking may be a key to this.  This procedure involves the use of specialized curettes to mechanically remove plaque and calculus from below the gumline, and may require multiple visits and local anesthesia to adequately complete. Periodontal disease is diagnosed by your dentist during a periodontal examination. If nonsurgical therapy is found to have been unsuccessful in managing signs of disease activity, periodontal surgery may be needed to stop progressive bone loss and regenerate lost bone where possible. A number of other products, functionally equivalent to hydrogen peroxide, are commercially available, but at substantially higher cost. Smoking – Smoking is another cause to increase periodontitis directly, or indirectly. An additional way to stop the inflammation would be for the person to receive subgingival antibiotics (such as minocycline) or undergo some form of gingival surgery to access the depths of the pockets and perhaps even change the pocket depths so they become 3 mm or less in depth and can once again be properly cleaned by the person at home with his or her toothbrush. In the early stages, periodontitis has very few symptoms, and in many individuals the disease has progressed significantly before they seek treatment. The first step in the treatment of periodontitis involves nonsurgical cleaning below the gum line with a procedure called "root surface instrumentation" or "RSI", this causes a mechanical disturbance to the bacterial biofilm below the gumline. This is important because if a pocket is deeper than 3 mm around the tooth, at-home care will not be sufficient to cleanse the pocket, and professional care should be sought. This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 01:32.
- GOOD PROGNOSIS /- 2 mm of bone over 5 years. To peri-implant conditions and disease, e. g. Grade – The grading system for periodontitis consists of 3 grades; Grade – A: slow progression of the disease; no prove of bone loss over the last 5 years. It is possibly the most important environmental risk for people. Periodontal disease can range from mild to severe. For smaller spaces, products such as narrow picks with soft rubber bristles provide excellent manual cleaning. Alkalosis – cause, types, symptoms, and management.  Globally 538 million people were estimated to be affected in 2015. By smoking, males are affected more than females. Regular dental check-ups and professional teeth cleaning as required: Dental check-ups serve to monitor the person's oral hygiene methods and levels of attachment around teeth, identify any early signs of periodontitis, and monitor response to treatment. Smoking is another factor that increases the occurrence of periodontitis, directly or indirectly, and may interfere with or adversely affect its treatment. It has 3 main parts: Periodontal health, gingival diseases and conditions; Periodontitis; Other conditions affecting the periodontium. The Otzi Iceman was shown to have had severe gum disease.  Doxycycline has been shown to improve indicators of disease progression (namely probing depth and attachment level). Persons with periodontitis must realize it is a chronic inflammatory disease and a lifelong regimen of excellent hygiene and professional maintenance care with a dentist/hygienist or periodontist is required to maintain affected teeth. Most children with gum disease have the mildest form, called gingivitis. Nonsurgical scaling and root planing are usually successful if the periodontal pockets are shallower than 4–5 mm (0.16–0.20 in). Chronic periodontitis affects about 750 million people or about 10.8% of the world population as of 2010. About 80% will suffer from moderate loss (1–2 mm/year) and the remaining 10% will not suffer any loss.. Also, it may be necessary to complete any other dental needs, such as replacement of rough, plaque-retentive restorations, closure of open contacts between teeth, and any other requirements diagnosed at the initial evaluation. Aggressive Periodontitis. Although the primary cause of both gingivitis and periodontitis is the microbial plaque that adheres to the tooth surfaces, there are many other modifying factors. Therefore, in well managed diabetes there seems to be a small effect of diabetes on the risk for periodontitis. Periodontitis is an inflammation of periodontium. Nonetheless, the continued stabilization of a person's periodontal state depends largely, if not primarily, on the person's oral hygiene at home, as well as on the go. Daily oral hygiene measures to prevent periodontal disease include: Typically, dental hygienists (or dentists) use special instruments to clean (debride) teeth below the gumline and disrupt any plaque growing below the gumline. The different types of diseases have distinct symptoms and characteristics. This involves regular checkups and detailed cleanings every three months to prevent repopulation of periodontitis-causing microorganisms, and to closely monitor affected teeth so early treatment can be rendered if the disease recurs. Probing should be avoided then, and an analysis by gingival index should determine the presence or absence of inflammation.  It is arguably the most important environmental risk factor for periodontitis. The 2017 classification of periodontal diseases is as follows:, Periodontal health, gingival disease and conditions, Other conditions affecting the periodontium, The goals of staging periodontitis is to classify the severity of damage and assess specific factors that may affect management.. Examine your mouth to look for plaque and tartar buildup and check for easy bleeding. Gingivitis: Healthy gums are pink and firm. , The word "periodontitis" (Greek: περιοδοντίτις) comes from the Greek peri, "around", odous (GEN odontos), "tooth", and the suffix -itis, in medical terminology "inflammation".  Furthermore, research has shown that in the Roman era in the UK, there was less periodontal disease than in modern times. B: moderate progression; <2 mm of bone loss last 5 years. Ehlers – danlos Syndrome, and palm plantar keratoderma are causes of periodontal disease. In the primary, periodontal disease has common symptoms before treatment. people from the lower end of the socioeconomic scale suffer more often from it than people from the upper end of the socioeconomic scale. Purpose: Research indicates clinicians face barriers when attempting to utilize evidence-based protocols for periodontal disease and periodontal disease diagnosis often varies between dental providers. Oral hygiene – Poor oral hygiene is the main cause of periodontal diseases in addition to indigestion and hyperacidity. This thin "measuring stick" is gently placed into the space between the gums and the teeth, and slipped below the gumline.  In English this term can describe, as in Greek, any discharge of pus; i.e. Also, the use of an interdental brush is helpful if space between the teeth allows. , An ancient hominid from 3 million years ago had gum disease. , Plaque may be soft and uncalcified, hard and calcified, or both; for plaques that are on teeth the calcium comes from saliva; for plaques below the gumline, it comes from blood via oozing of inflamed gums. Treatment is available in many procedures but dentists may recommend antibiotics and surgery in certain cases. The tradition-al systems were based on tooth mortality19 and did not look at the possibility of classify-ing a tooth’s prognosis, based on the ability to control the disease process and success- It can be classified as mild, moderate, and aggressive or advanced gum disease. Hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis, Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Periodontal_disease&oldid=997542888, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles needing additional references from November 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. TYPES OF PROGNOSIS
- EXCELLENT PROGNOSIS
- No bone loss, excellent gingival condition, good patient cooperation, no systemic environmental factors. Symptoms … Chronic periodontal disease, unlike gingivitis, involves the destruction of the supporting jawbone around the teeth. Gingivitis is often caused by inadequate oral hygiene. Recent research undertaken at the Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition has established that the bacteria associated with gum disease in dogs are not the same as in humans. There is a periodontal disease listed in 7 major categories and in which 2-6 forms of destructive periodontal disease because the damage is significantly irreversible. In its more serious form, called periodontitis, the gums can pull away from the tooth, bone can be lost, and the teeth may loosen or fall out. This is a standard treatment to prevent any further progress of established periodontitis. Also hard to remove, and its bacteria produce more toxins that make gums causing them can bleed, tender, and inflamed. Types of periodontal prognosis. Refer you to a periodontist.  Systemic disease may develop because the gums are very vascular (have a good blood supply). Vising a dentist will help to stop bone and tissue loss. If it is not treated in time it can develop … If people have 7-mm or deeper pockets around their teeth, then they would likely risk eventual tooth loss over the years.  It is associated with an increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and hypertension. The disease exists in various types hence the reason why there are different types of periodontal treatment.  Recommended oral hygiene include daily brushing and flossing. Periodontitis can cause teeth to loosen or lead to tooth loss.Periodontitis is common but largely preventable. Other contributors are poor nutrition and underlying medical issues such as diabetes. Home remedies are also helpful to reduce pain or dental infection. , Like other conditions intimately related to access to hygiene and basic medical monitoring and care, periodontitis tends to be more common in economically disadvantaged populations or regions. Long-term studies have shown, in moderate to advanced periodontitis, surgically treated cases often have less further breakdown over time and, when coupled with a regular post-treatment maintenance regimen, are successful in nearly halting tooth loss in nearly 85% of diagnosed people.  The word pyorrhea (alternative spelling: pyorrhoea) comes from the Greek pyorrhoia (πυόρροια), "discharge of matter", itself from pyon, "discharge from a sore", rhoē, "flow", and the suffix -ia. The clinical team, including the dentist, assistant, and dental hygienist, are involved in collecting the information and synthesizing it into a proper diagnosis. In Europe and the Middle East archaeological research looking at ancient plaque DNA, shows that in the ancient hunter-gatherer lifestyle there was less gum disease, but that it became more common when more cereals were eaten. However, they all require prompt attention and treatment. Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that promotes the growth of bone in an area where bone has been destroyed by periodontal disease.  Diabetics must be meticulous with their homecare to control periodontal disease. 3. Gingivitis is quite common, with many people having it to different strengths. It is very important to understand that in many cases, periodontal disease can progress without symptoms like pain. In its early stage, called gingivitis, the gums become swollen, red, and may bleed. It results from bacteria that accumulate in the mouth and form plaque, a sticky membrane that forms over the teeth ( x ). Periodontitis is an inflammation of the periodontium, i.e., the tissues that support the teeth. The joint hyperlaxity and cutaneous hyperelasticity are variable. Sites are defined as the positions at which probing measurements are taken around each tooth and, generally, six probing sites around each tooth are recorded, as follows: If up to 30% of sites in the mouth are affected, the manifestation is classified as "localized"; for more than 30%, the term "generalized" is used. Gingival inflammation and bone destruction are largely painless. Diabetes is a disorder in the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. PERIODONTITIS AS A MANIFESTATION OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES It can be divided into two categories: - periodontitis associated with hematologic disorders such as leukemia and acquired neutropenia. Its types include: Chronic periodontitis – is the commonest form and is identified by evidence of gum recession and pocket formation. , It is estimated that lost productivity due to severe periodontitis costs the global economy about US$54 billion each year. A form of periodontitis that occurs in patients who are otherwise clinically … The periodontium consists of four tissue; Alveolar bone, or the bony socket of the teeth.  Overall, the increased risk of periodontitis in diabetics is estimated to be between two and three times higher.  So, in summary, it is bacteria which initiates the disease, but key destructive events are brought about by the exaggerated response from the host's immune system.. Studies show that after such a professional cleaning (periodontal debridement), microbial plaque tends to grow back to precleaning levels after about three to four months. The prognosis can be classified in two ways. The seven categories are as follows: Moreover, terminology expressing both the extent and severity of periodontal diseases are appended to the terms above to denote the specific diagnosis of a particular person or group of people. Adults are the most affected. In periodontal health, gingival diseases and conditions, there are 3 sub-types: Generally, gum disease isn’t painful.  As of 2017 it was not certain what species were most responsible for causing harm, but gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, spirochetes, and viruses have been suggested; in individual people it is sometimes clear that one or more species is driving the disease. Canadian Academy of Periodontology — What is periodontitis? Without daily oral hygiene, periodontal disease will not be overcome, especially if the person has a history of extensive periodontal disease. Factors that increase the risk of periodontitis is an inflammation of the attempts to attach a classification for the of... 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