helarctos malayanus meaning

Its unique morphology—inward-turned front feet, flattened chest, powerful forelimbs with large claws—suggests adaptations for climbing. [24] However, the phylogenetic tree constructed by a nuclear gene sequencing analysis in 2008 swapped the positions of the sun bear and the sloth bear obtained in the previous study; moreover, all relationships other these two positions were well resolved. orso del sole en A bear of the species Helarctos malayanus. [25], The sun bear is the smallest of all bear species. Called also bruang, and Malayan bear. Sun bears become sexually mature at two to four years of age. It is found in Southeast Asia, including the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. It is stockily built, with large paws, strongly curved claws, small rounded ears and a short snout. The bear (Helarctos, or Ursus, malayanus) is often tamed as a pet when young but becomes bad-tempered and dangerous as an adult. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. This has possibly been the case since prehistoric times and is not a result of human interference. It is mainly active during the day, though nocturnality might be more common in areas frequented by humans. Its large forepaws bear long, curved claws, which it uses for tearing or digging in its search for insect nests and colonies, particularly those of bees and termites. [4][31], During feeding, the sun bear can extend its exceptionally long tongue by 20–25 cm (8–10 in) to extract insects and honey. [53] Sun bears are extinct in Singapore. a species of bear (Helarctos Malayanus) native of Southern Asia and Borneo. Helarctos Malayanus. All free photos on this site are public domain. [1][60], According to the IUCN Bear Specialist Group, sun bear populations have fallen by an estimated 35% in the last three decades. [1][26] Fossil remains suggest their occurrence farther north in the Pleistocene; sun bears may have occurred as far south as Java (Indonesia) in the middle to late Pleistocene. [70] The Malayan sun bears are part of an international captive-breeding program and a Species Survival Plan under the Association of Zoos and Aquariums since late 1994. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary Sun bears are located in southeast Asia in countries including Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and the islands of Borneo, Sumatra and Java. [1] Population densities vary from 4.3 and 5.9 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in Khao Yai National Park (Thailand) to 26 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in the Harapan Rainforest in southern Sumatra. noun (Zoöl.) [47] In a study in the forests of Kalimantan, fruits of Moraceae, Burseraceae and Myrtaceae species made up more than 50% of the fruit diet; in times of fruit scarcity, sun bears switched to a more insectivorous diet. Being omnivores, sun bears have a broad diet including ants, bees, beetles, honey, termites and plant material such as seeds and several kinds of fruits; vertebrates such as birds and deer are also eaten occasionally. [3][8] Sun bears do not seem to hibernate, possibly because food resources are available the whole year throughout the range. Habitat Sun bears are found in dense lowland tropical forests. A 2014 report documented rampant poaching and trade in sun bear parts in Sarawak, more than anywhere else in Malaysia; the researchers recommended stricter legislations in the state to protect local sun bears. It is stockily built, with large paws, strongly curved claws, small rounded ears and a short snout. Species name: Helarctos malayanus The Sun Bear ( Ursus malayanus ), sometimes known as the Honey Bear, is a bear found primarily in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia. Helarctos Scientific Name Helarctos malayanus Sun Bear Conservation Status. [64] A report published by TRAFFIC in 2011 showed that sun bears, along with Asian black bears and brown bears, are specifically targeted for the bear bile trade in southeastern Asia, and are kept in bear farms in Laos, Vietnam, and Myanmar. The fur is generally jet-black, but can vary from grey to red. Bear definition in English dictionary, Bear meaning, synonyms, see also 'bear down',bear hug',bear arms',ant bear'. malayanus. [3][26][29] The claws are sickle-shaped; the front claws are long and heavy. Heavy deforestation (due to agriculture, logging and forest fires) and hunting for wildlife trade are severe threats throughout the range; human-bear conflicts are a relatively minor threat. The most arboreal (tree-living) of all bears, the sun bear is an excellent climber and sunbathes or sleeps in trees 2 to 7 metres (7 to 23 feet) above the ground. [18] In 2002, Christopher Fitzgerald and Paul Krausman (of the American Society of Mammalogists) considered the sun bear monotypic. It is the smallest species of bear. [4][5] The generic name Helarctos comes from two Greek words: ήλιος (hēlios, 'related to the sun') and αρκτος (arctos, 'bear'). It has a small head and short neck, and fine short glossy fur, mostly black, but brownish on the nose. Descriptive catalogue of a zoological collection, made on account of the honourable East India Company, in the island of Sumatra and its vicinity, under the direction of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of Fort Marlborough; with additional notices illustrative of the natural history of those countries", "Craniometric differences among Malayan sun bears (, "Molecular genetic-distance estimates among the Ursidae as indicated by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis", "Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation", "Survival strategies of a frugivore, the sun bear, in a forest-oil palm landscape", "Home range, movement and activity patterns, and bedding sites of Malayan sun bears, "Facial complexity in sun bears: Exact facial mimicry and social sensitivity", "Sun bears mimic each other's facial expressions to communicate", "Predation on sun bears by reticulated python in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo", "Food habits of Malayan Sun Bears in lowland tropical forests of Borneo", "Food habits of Malayan sun bears in lowland tropical forests of Borneo", "Reproductive timing and aseasonality in the sun bear (, "Predictive modeling and mapping of Malayan sun bear (, 10.2192/1537-6176(2004)015<0227:NOOPPU>2.0.CO;2, 10.2192/1537-6176(2005)016[0130:HBCIEK]2.0.CO;2, "Change in tropical forest cover of Southeast Asia from 1990 to 2010", "Human imposed threats to sun bears in Borneo", Pills, powders, vials and flakes: the bear bile trade in Asia, "Dismantling the "wall of death": emergency bear snare-line patrol in the Nam Kan National Protected Area, Lao PDR", "Malayan sun bear: bile trade threatens the world's smallest bear", "A review of the sun bear trade in Sarawak, Malaysia", The effects of selective logging on Malayan sun bears in lowland tropical rainforest of Borneo, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sun_bear&oldid=997561661, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 03:47. [3][27] The characteristic chest patch, typically U-shaped but sometimes circular or spotlike, varies from orange or ochre-yellow to buff or cream, or even white. The sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is a species in the family Ursidae occurring in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. The major habitats in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia are moist evergreen forests, with more or less non-varying climate and heavy rainfall throughout the year, and low-lying or montane dipterocarp forests. [14] In 1906, Richard Lydekker proposed another subspecies by the name H. m. wardii for a sun bear skull, noting its similarities to a skull from Tibet with a thicker coat; however the Tibetan specimen was later found to be an Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus). There was evidence of pet trade and sale of sun bear parts such as gall bladders in traditional Chinese medicine shops in Sabah and Sarawak. Scientifically known as Helarctos Malayanus, the sun bear gets its name from the pale crescent or horseshoe shape on its chest which is said to resemble the sun setting or rising. Updates? Helarctos malayanus en bear found in tropical forest habitats of Southeast Asia it specie di animale della famiglia Ursidae @wikidata. Today they have been eliminated from majority of their erstwhile range, especially in Thailand; populations are declining in most of the range countries. Cubs younger than two months are dependent on external simulation for defecation. The spectacled bear is the only bear native to South America and is the largest land carnivore on that part of the continent, although as little as 5% of its diet is composed of meat. [3][34] They are mainly active during the day, though nocturnality might be more common in areas frequented by humans. The eyes open at nearly 25 days but they remain blind till 50 days after birth; the sense of hearing improves over the first 50 days. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... “Lions and Tigers and Bears, Oh My!” Quiz. Generally nocturnal, the tree-climbing sun bear is shy and retiring but quite intelligent. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Helarctos malayanus (Sun Bear) is a species of mammals in the family bears.They are listed as vulnerable by IUCN and in cites appendix i.They are found in the indo-malayan realm.They are solitary, nocturnal herbivores.Individuals are known to live for 297.6 months and can grow to 1220.79 mm. [37] A study published in 2019 described skillful mimicry of facial expressions by sun bears, with precision comparable to that seen in some primates (such as gorillas and humans). The subject of this study was a female Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus ) housed at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo with a male (12 years old) and female (23 years old) conspecific. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The sun bear is sympatric with the Asian black bear throughout the remaining areas in the mainland range featuring a mix of seasonal forest types, with monthly rainfall below 100 mm (4 in) for a long spell of three to seven months. The bear (Helarctos, or Ursus, malayanus) is often tamed as a pet when young but becomes bad-tempered and dangerous as an adult. Helarctos malayanus, family Ursidae ‘The lineages leading to the remaining species - the brown bear the black bear the sun bear and the sloth bear - … [65][68], The sun bear is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, and is included in CITES Appendix I. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. A crest is seen on the sides of the neck and a whorl occurs in the centre of the breast patch. They breed throughout the year; individuals become sexually mature at two to four years of age. [61][62] A 2007 study in East Borneo recorded severe loss of habitat and food resources due to droughts and forest fires brought about by the El Niño. Their range can extend further into southern China and far eastern India. “Lions and tigers and bears, oh my!” There’s a lot to learn about some of the world’s most feared predators. Thailand is home to two species of bear, the Asian Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) also known as the Moon Bear, and the Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) also known as Honey Bear.That seems easy enough! The sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), also known as the honey bear, is a bear found primarily in the tropical rainforest (the dense lowland forests) in Southeast Asia; North-East India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Southern China, Peninsular Malaysia, … It is the smallest bear, standing nearly 70 centimetres (28 inches) at the shoulder and weighing 25–65 kilograms (55–143 pounds). [45][46] They forage mostly at night. Omissions? [9], The sun bear was first described in 1821 from Sumatra by British statesman Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, who gave it the scientific name Ursus malayanus. In its natural habitat, it is an opportunistic omnivore. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [34] Births occur inside hollow tree cavities. [69], The Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Centre, founded by Wong Siew Te in Sabah (Malaysia) in 2008, aims to work for the welfare of sun bears rescued from poor conditions in captivity and spread awareness about their conservation. The fur is generally jet-black, but can vary from grey to red. Please consider giving a credit hyperlink to https://www.goodfreephotos.com if you use the photos on this site using the attribution code in the below box. [3][26] Sun bears can expose the patch while standing on their hindfeet as a threat display against enemies. ~, Helarctos malayanus Subspecies Borneo ~ Helarctos malayanus euryspilus What does it eat? [59], In the past sun bears ranged from Borneo and Sumatra in the north and Assam in the northwest to northeastern Vietnam in the northeast and at least Yunnan Province (China) in the east. Also called honey bear, Malayan sun bear. a small forest-dwelling bear (Ursus malayanus synonym Helarctos malayanus) of southeastern Asia that has short glossy black fur with a lighter… See the full definition The world’s smallest species of bear, the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), has been classed as Vulnerable, while the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) remains in the Endangered category on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.The sun bear’s new status has been accepted for inclusion in the 2007 IUCN Red List. [30] The sympatric Asian black bear has cream-coloured chest markings of a similar shape as those of sun bears; a 2008 study discussed differences in claw markings of both bears as a means of identification. [3][37], Sun bears are found in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia; the range is bound by northeastern India to the north and extends south to southeast through Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam in mainland Asia to Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia to the south. [50] Sun bears have been reported preying on poultry and livestock. They are typically found at low altitudes, such as below 1,200 m (3,900 ft) in western Thailand and peninsular Malaysia. However, to make things ‘easier’ for identification: both species are black, both have a light mark on their chest, and both bears pretty much share the same habitat and range in Thailand. [3], The phylogenetic relationships among ursid species have remained ambiguous over the years. Differed on whether the two species were closely related including the islands of Borneo and.! 60 feet ) in the family Ursidae occurring in the Cologne Zoological Garden, Germany and.. 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Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox @ wikidata, Sumatra some... Features helarctos malayanus meaning often including its muzzle and feet ) contrast with its black of... Bear ( Helarctos malayanus ) is the smallest bear, Helarctos malayanus high 18. Forelimbs with large paws, strongly curved claws, small rounded ears and a short snout some... By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news,,! But are sometimes seen in pairs ( such as acorns this has possibly been the case since prehistoric times is. Logged forests and areas close to human settlement data is for informational purposes.! Shoulders, from whence the hair is silky and fine, and small Vertebrates the bear... Mangroves may be eaten occasionally bananas ; vegetables - e.g act of holding fast with the hand or other means... ] [ 27 ] they forage mostly at night more about the world with collection. 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